One of the most frequently asked questions in our law practice is who should be the legal owner of a trademark. It is hard to believe that the “name section” of the trademark application is the section most frequently incorrectly completed of all the sections of the trademark application. If the wrong entity is named as the trademark owner, the application and registration may be void. In other words, a trademark registration may be invalid if the owner is not the person or entity that controls the nature and quality of the goods or services provided under the mark. If there is no business entity formed and you as an individual control the nature and quality of the goods and services, then the proper owner is you the “individual”. You will need to indicate your legal name and an address, in addition to recording your citizenship on the trademark application.
The general principal of trademark law is that the individual or legal entity that uses the mark owns the mark, unless use is by a related company or licensee. U.S. law recognizes use by a related company or licensee if the use inures to the benefit of the trademark owner. Often the reason for having another entity use the mark and another entity own the trademark is to protect a trademark or trademark portfolio from being forfeited in litigation, should there be a money judgment against the legal entity using the trademark. It should be noted, that in any license agreement it must be clear that the owner of the trademark will control the nature and quality of the goods or services and the license agreement should explicitly state how the control is exercised.
In addition, to an individual, a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, LLC, trust, estate, joint venture or joint applicants may be the proper legal owner of a trademark. When recording information on a trademark application, with respect to a business entity that is formed you must indicate the state where it is formed and the name and address of the business entity. For a sole proprietorship you must name the name of the sole proprietorship, provide the address, the state where it was formed and the name and citizenship of the sole proprietor.